Our Publications


Crossman CA, Hamilton PK, Brown MW, Conger LA, George RC, Jackson KA, Radvan SN, Frasier TR. (2024) Effects of inbreeding on reproductive success in endangered North Atlantic right whales. Royal Society Open Science. In Press.


Crossman CA, Fontaine MC, Frasier TR (2023) A comparison of genomic diversity and demographic history of the North Atlantic and Southwest Atlantic southern right whales. Molecular Ecology. https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.17099. PDF.


Frasier BA, Springate L, Frasier TR, Brewington S, Carruthers M, Edvardsson R, Harrison R, Kitchener AC, Mainland I, Szabo VE (2022) Genetic examination of historical North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) bone specimens from the eastern North Atlantic: insights into species history, transoceanic population structure, and genetic diversity. Marine Mammal Science. https://doi-org.library.smu.ca/10.1111/mms.12916

Hamilton P, Frasier BA, Conger L, George RC, Jackson KA, Frasier TR (2022) Genetic identifications challenge our assumptions of physical development and mother–calf associations and separation times: a case study of the North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis). Mammalian Biology. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s42991-021-00177-4.


Crossman CA, Barrett-Lennard LG, Frasier TR (2021) An example of DNA methylation as a means to quantify stress in wildlife using killer whales. Scientific Reports, 11: 16822. PDF

Chowdhury, MP, Choudhury KD, Pothier Bouchard G., Riel-Salvatore J, Negrino F, Benazzi S, Slimak L,  Frasier B, Szabo V, Harrison R, Hambrecht G, Kitchener AC, Wogelius RA, and Buckley M (2021) Machine Learning ATR-FTIR spectroscopy data for the screening of collagen for ZooMS analysis and mtDNA in archaeological bone. Journal of Archaeological Science, 126: 105311

Kitchener AC, Szabo VE, Buckley M, van den Hurk Y, Mainland I, Carruthers M, MacKay C, Frasier BA (2021) First records of grey whale, Eschrichtius robustus, from Scotland. Mammal Communications 7: 18-29.


Béland SL, Frasier BA, Darling JD, Frasier TR (2020) Using pre- and post-exploitation samples to assess the impact of industrial whaling on the genetic characteristics of eastern North Pacific gray and humpback whales and to compare methods used to infer historic demography. Marine Mammal Science 36(2): 398-420. 

Frasier TR, Petersen SD, Postma L, Johnson L, Heide-Jørgensen MP, Ferguson S (2020) Bayesian abundance estimation from genetic mark-recapture data when not all sites are sampled: an example with the bowhead whale. Global Ecology and Conservation 22: E009032.

Frasier BA (2020) Ancient DNA: A Tool for Understanding Historic Population Crashes (With an Emphasis on the North Atlantic). Arctic crashes: people and animals in the changing north, Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press, Washington, D.C..


Sharp SM, McLellan WA, Rotstein DS, Costidis AM, Barco SG, Durham K, Pitchford TD, Jackson KA, Daoust PY, Wimmer T, Couture EL, Bourque L, Frasier T, Frasier B, Fauquier D, Rowles TK, Hamilton PK, Pettis H, Moore MJ (2019) Gross and histopathologic diagnoses from North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) mortalities between 2003 and 2018. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 135: 1-31.


Konrad CM, Frasier TR, Whitehead H, Gero S (2018) Kin selection and allocare in sperm whales. Behavioral Ecology 30: 194-201. 

Konrad CM, Frasier TR, Rendell L, Whitehead H, Gero S (2018) Kinship and association do not explain vocal repertoire variation among individual sperm whales or social units. Animal Behaviour 145: 131-140.

Konrad CM, Gero S, Frasier TR, Whitehead H (2018) Kinship influences sperm whale social organization within, but not between, social units. Royal Society Open Science 5: 180914

Browne SC, Colosimo C, Frasier BA (2018) The Tale of the Wandering Whale. Memorial University: Labrador Institute. 38pp.


Cammen KM, Vincze S, Hellar S, McLeod B, Wood SA, Bowen WD, Hammill MO, Puryear WB, Runstadler J, Wenzel FW, Kinnison M, Frasier T (2017) Genetic diversity from bottleneck to recovery in two sympatric pinniped species in the Northwest Atlantic. Conservation Genetics 19: 555-569.

Vachon F, Whitehead H, Frasier TR (2018) What factors shape genetic diversity in cetaceans? Ecology and Evolution 8: 1554-1572.

Frasier TR, Reeves RR (2017) Lessons from cetacean tragedies. Science 358: 1396.

Béland SL, McLeod BA, Martin J, Martin GM, Darling JD, Frasier TR (2017) Species composition of First Nation whaling hunts in the Clayoquot Sound region of Vancouver Island as estimated through genetic analyses. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 17: 235-241.

Konrad CM, Dupuis A, Gero S, Frasier T (2017) A sexing technique for highly degraded cetacean DNA. Aquatic Mammals 43: 655-660.

Somers CM, Graham CF, Martino JA, Frasier TR, Lance SL, Gardiner LE, Poulin RG (2017) Conservation genetics of the eastern yellow-bellied racer (Coluber constrictor flaviventris) and bullsnake (Pituphis catenifer sayi): river valleys are critical features for snakes at northern range limits. PLoS One 12: e0187322. 

Springate L, Frasier TR (2017) Gamete compatibility genes in mammals: Candidates, applications and a potential path forward. Royal Society Open Science 4: 170577.

Augusto J, Frasier TR, Whitehead H (2017) Social structure of long finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas) off norther Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. Behaviour 154: 509-540.

Whitehead H, Vachon F, Frasier TR (2017) Cultural hitchhiking in the matrilineal whales. Behavior Genetics 47: 324-334.

Augusto J, Frasier TR, Whitehead H (2017) Characterizing allocare in the pilot whale (Globicephala melas) population that summers off Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, Canada. Marine Mammal Science 33: 440-456.


Frasier TR, Lucas Z, McLeod BA, McLoughlin PD (2016) The horses of Sable Island. pp. 271-298, In: Sable Island: The Ecology and Biodiversity of Sable Island (Freedman, B, ed.). Fitzhenry & Whiteside, Markham, ON.

Ford JKB, Pilkington JF, Gisborne B, Frasier TR, Ellis GM (2016) Recent observations of North Pacific right whales (Eubalaena japonica) off the west coast of Canada. Marine Biodiversity Records 9: 50.

Frasier TR (2016) A note on the use of multiple linear regression in molecular ecology. Molecular Ecology Resources 16: 382-387.


Uzans AJ, Lucas Z, McLeod BA, Frasier TR (2015) Small Ne of the isolated and unmanaged horse population on Sable Island. Journal of Heredity 106: 660-665.

McLeod BA, Burns LE, Frasier TR, Broders HG (2015) Effect of oceanic straits on gene flow in the recently endangered little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) in maritime Canada: implications for the spread of white-nose syndrome. Canadian Journal of Zoology 93: 427-437.

Johnson LNL, McLeod BA, Burns LE, Arseneault K, Frasier TR, Broders HG (2015) Population genetic structure within and among seasonal site types in the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) and the Northern long-eared bat (M. septentrionalis). PLoS One 10(5): e0126309-18.

Clare T, Lucas Z, McLeod BA, Frasier TR (2015) Procedures for optimizing the recovery of DNA from carcasses. Conservation Genetics Resources 5: 333-335.

Pew J, Muir PH, Wang J, Frasier TR (2015) related: an R package for analyzing pairwise relatedness from codominant molecular markers. Molecular Ecology Resources 15: 557-561.


Burns LE, Frasier TR, Broders HG (2014) Genetic connectivity among swarming sites in the wide ranging and recently declining little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus). Ecology and Evolution 4(21): 4130-4149.

McLeod BA, Frasier TR, Lucas Z (2014) Assessment of the extirpated maritimes walrus using morphological and ancient DNA analysis. PLoS One 9(6): e99569.

Kowarski KA, Augusto JF, Frasier TR, Whitehead H (2014) Effects of remote biopsy sampling on long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas). Aquatic Mammals 40: 177-125

McLeod BA, Furgal CM, Laing R, Winters K, Sheldon T (2014) Marine Mammals of Nunatsiavut/ Imammiutait Omajungit Nunatsiavummiutait. Research publication of Trent University and the Nunatsiavut Government.


D’Intino AM, Darling JD, Ramirez UJ, Frasier TR (2013) Lack of nuclear differentiation suggests reproductive connectivity between the “southern feeding group” and larger population of eastern North Pacific gray whales, despite previous detection of mitochondrial differences. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 13: 97-104.

Frasier TR, Gillett RM, Hamilton PK, Brown MW, Kraus SD, White BN (2013) Postcopulatory selection for dissimilar gametes maintains heterozygosity in the endangered North Atlantic right whale. Ecology and Evolution 3: 3483-3494.

Cole T, Hamilton P, Henry AG, Duley P, Pace RM III, White BN, Frasier TR (2013) Evidence of a North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis mating ground. Endangered Species Research 21: 55-64.

Augusto JF, Frasier TR, Whitehead H (2013) Using photography to determine sex in pilot whales (Globicephala melas) is not possible: males and females have similar dorsal fins. Marine Mammal Science 29: 213-220.


Burns LE, Broders HG, Frasier TR (2012) Characterization of 11 tetranucleotide microsatellite loci for the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) based on in silico genome sequences. Conservation Genetics Resources 4: 653-655.

McLeod BA, Frasier TR, Dyke AS, Savelle JM, White BN (2012) Examination of ten thousand years of mitochondrial DNA diversity and population demographics in bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) of the Central Canadian Arctic. Marine Mammal Science 28: E426-E443

McLeod BA, Furgal C, Laing R, Sheldon T, Winters K (2012) A Field Guide to the Prey of ringed seal (Pusa hispida) in Nunatsiavut. Trent University and the Nunatsiavut Government, 140 pp..


Fitzhugh WW, Herzog A, Perdikaris S, McLeod BA (2011) Ship to Shore: Inuit, Early Europeans, and Maritime Landscapes in the Northern Gulf of St. Lawrence. In: The Archaeology of Maritime Landscapes: When the Land Meets the Sea, Vol II. Ford, B.L. (ed.) Springer, 300p.

Frasier TR, Roderick C (2011) Improving how evolution is taught: facilitating a shift from memorization to evolutionary thinking. Evolution: Education & Outreach 4: 298-307.

Wood S, Frasier T, McLeod BA, Gilbert J, White BN, Bowen WD, Hammill MO, Waring G, Brault S (2011) The genetics of recolonization: an analysis of grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) stock structure in the northwest Atlantic. Canadian Journal of Zoology 89: 490-487.

Frasier TR, Koroscil SM, White BN, Darling JD (2011) Assessment of population substructure in relation to summer feeding ground use in the eastern North Pacific gray whale. Endangered Species Research 14: 39-48. 


McLeod BA, White BN (2010) Tracking mtDNA heteroplasmy through multiple generations in the North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis). Journal of Heredity 101: 235-239.

Gillett RM, Frasier TR, Rolland RM, White BN (2010) Molecular identification of individual North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) using free-floating feces. Marine Mammal Science 26: 917-936.

Frasier TR, Hamilton PK, Brown MW, Kraus SD, White BN (2010) Reciprocal exchange and subsequent adoption of calves by two North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis). Aquatic Mammals 36: 115-120.

McLeod BA, Brown MW, Frasier TR, White BN (2010) DNA profile of a sixteenth century western North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis). Conservation Genetics 11: 339-345.


Frasier TR, Hamilton PK, Brown MW, Kraus SD, White BN (2009) Sources and rates of errors in methods of individual identification in the North Atlantic right whale. Journal of Mammalogy 90: 1246-1255. 


Frasier TR (2008) STORM: software for testing hypotheses of relatedness and mating patterns. Molecular Ecology Resources 8: 1263-1266.

Wang JY, Frasier TR, Yang S-C, White BN (2008) Detecting recent speciation events: the case of the finless porpoise (genus Neophocaena). Heredity 101: 145-155.

Frasier TR, White BN (2008) Increased efficiency of genetic profiling through quantity and quality assessment of fluorescently-labeled oligonucleotide primers. BioTechniques 44: 49-52.

McLeod BA, Brown MW, Moore MJ, Stevens W, Barkham SH, Barkham M, White BN (2008) Bowhead whales, and not right whales, were the primary target of 16th – 17th-century Basque whalers in the western North Atlantic. Arctic 61: 61-75.

McLeod BA, Doidge W, Hammill MO, Furgal CM (2008) A Field Guide to Prey of Beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) of the Canadian Arctic. Research publication of the Department of Fisheries and Oceans/Makivik Corporation.

McLeod BA (2008) Red tiles and baleen: Basque whalers on the coast of Labrador. Newfoundland Quarterly 100: 16-19, 34-35. 


Frasier TR, Hamilton PK, Brown MW, Conger LA, Knowlton AR, Marx MK, Slay CK, Kraus SD, White BN (2007) Patterns of male reproductive success in a highly promiscuous whale species: the endangered North Atlantic right whale. Molecular Ecology 16: 5277-5293.

Kraus SD, Pace RM, and Frasier TR (2007) High investment, low return: the strange case of reproduction in Eubalaena glacialis. In: The Urban Whale: North Atlantic Right Whales at the Crossroads (Kraus SD, Rolland RR, eds.) pp. 172-199. Harvard University Press.

Frasier TR, McLeod BA, Bower RM, Brown MW, and White BN (2007) Right whales past and present as revealed by their genes. In: The Urban Whale: North Atlantic Right Whales at the Crossroads (Kraus SD, Rolland RR, eds.). pp. 200-231. Harvard University Press. 


Frasier TR, Rastogi T, Brown MW, Hamilton PK, Kraus SD, White BN (2006) Characterization of tetranucleotide microsatellite loci and development and validation of multiplex reactions for the study of right whale species (genus Eubalaena). Molecular Ecology Notes 6: 1025-1029. 

McLeod BA, Frasier TR, White BN (2006) Reply to the comment by Romero and Kannada on “Genetic analysis of 16th-century whale bones prompts a revision of the impact of Basque whaling on right and bowhead whales in the western North Atlantic”. Canadian Journal of Zoology 84: 1066-1069.


Rastogi T, Brown MW, McLeod BA, Frasier TR, Grenier R, Cumbaa SL, Nadarajah J, and White BN (2004) Genetic analysis of 16th century whale bones prompts a revision of the impact of Basque whaling on right and bowhead whales in the western North Atlantic. Canadian Journal of Zoology 82: 1647-1654.

Frasier TR, Wilson PJ, and White BN (2004) Rapid screening of microsatellite markers for polymorphisms using SYBR Green I and a DNA sequencer. BioTechniques 36: 408-409.